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BIO Magazine - Astrophysics Δεκέμβριος 2015
Δεκέμβριος 2015 No38

BIO Space Sciences

Astrophysics
Astrophysics

People have gazed at the stars, given them names, and observed their changes for thousands of years. NASA joined the ancient pursuit of knowledge of our universe comparatively recently.

Goals
The science goals of Astrophysics are breathtaking: we seek to understand the universe and our place in it. We are starting to investigate the very moment of creation of the universe and are close to learning the full history of stars and galaxies. We are discovering how planetary systems form and how environments hospitable for life develop. And we will search for the signature of life on other worlds, perhaps to learn that we are not alone.

NASA’s goal in Astrophysics is to “Discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and developed into its present form, and search for Earth-like planets.” Three broad scientific questions emanate from these goals.

How does the Universe work How do matter, energy, space, and time behave under the extraordinary diverse conditions of the cosmos?
How did we get here? How did the universe originate and evolve to produce the galaxies, stars, and planets we see today?
Are we alone? What are the characteristics of planetary systems orbiting other stars, and do they harbor life?

Current Programs
Astrophysics comprises of three focused and two cross-cutting programs. These focused programs provide an intellectual framework for advancing science and conducting strategic planning. They include:

  • Physics of the Cosmos
  • Cosmic Origins
  • Exoplanet Exploration
  • Astrophysics Explorer Program
  • Astrophysics Research

Current Missions
The Astrophysics current missions include three of the Great Observatories originally planned in the 1980’s and launched over the past 20 years. The current suite of operational Great Observatories include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), and the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). Additionally, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and Kepler medium-sized missions explore the high-energy end of the spectrum and search for earth-like planets respectively.

Innovative Explorer missions, such as the Swift Gamma-ray Explorer and NuSTAR, complement the Astrophysics strategic missions. Together these missions account for much of humanity's accumulated knowledge of the heavens. Many of these missions have achieved their prime science goals, but continue to produce spectacular results in their extended operations.

NASA-funded investigators also participate in observations, data analysis and developed instruments for the astrophysics missions of our international partners, including ESA's XMM-Newton, Herschel, and Planck missions, and JAXA’s Suzaku.

Near Future
The near future will be dominated by several missions. Currently in development with especially broad scientific utility are SOFIA and the James Webb Space Telescope. In early April 2013, Explorer mission TESS and Explorer Mission of Opportunity NICER were selected to move forward into formulation. Completing these missions and an instrument for JAXA’s Astro-H, supporting the operational missions, and funding the research and analysis programs will consume most of the Astrophysics Division resources.

The Future
Since the 2001 decadal survey, the way the universe is viewed has changed dramatically. More than 700 planets have been discovered orbiting distant suns. Black holes are now known to be present at the center of most galaxies, including the Milky Way galaxy. The age, size and shape of the universe have been mapped based on the primordial radiation left by the big bang. And it has been learned that most of the matter in the universe is dark and invisible, and the universe is not only expanding, but accelerating in an unexpected way.

For the long term future, the Astrophysics goals will be guided based on the results of the 2010 Decadal survey New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. The priority science objectives chosen by the survey committee include: searching for the first stars, galaxies, and black holes; seeking nearby habitable planets; and advancing understanding of the fundamental physics of the universe.

An Astrophysics Roadmap will be developed by a task force of the Astrophysics Subcommittee (APS) during 2013. The Roadmap will present a 30-year vision for astrophysics using the most recent decadal survey as the starting point. The Roadmap will be released in mid-December 2013. For additional information please visit the Roadmap web page.

http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/

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