The Academy of Finland carries out a review of the state and quality of scientiﬁ c research in Finland once during the three-year term of its Research Councils. The assignment is based on Government decisions concerning the development of education and research as well as agreements on target outcomes signed between the Ministry of Education and the Academy of Finland. The previous reviews were published in 1997 and 2000.
The 2003 review is divided into a general section; special themes that complement the general section; and reports by the Academy’s four Research Councils. The main theme that cuts across the whole review is the impact of scientiﬁ c research, which is approached from different angles. Other issues that receive in-depth coverage include the challenges related to human resources in research.
The primary aim of the review is to serve the needs of national and international bodies and organisations responsible for science and technology policy as well as research funding. It also provides useful information for researchers and research organisations around the world.
Work to compile the review has been carried out under the supervision of a steering group appointed by the Board of the Academy of Finland. The group was chaired by Anneli Pauli, Vice President, Research (Academy of Finland). Its other members were the chairs of the Academy Research Councils: Professor Riitta Keiski (Research Council for Natural Sciences and Engineering), Professor Arto Mustajoki (Research Council for Culture and Society), Professor Terttu Vartiainen (Research Council for Biosciences and Environment) and Professor Eero Vuorio (Research Council for Health); and Markku Karlsson, Senior Vice President, Technology (Board of the Academy of Finland) and Director Sakari Karjalainen (Ministry of Education; Director Juhani Hakkarainen until 30 April 2002). Programme Manager Tarmo Lemola and Professor Reijo Miettinen have served as permanent expert members to the steering group. The steering group has deﬁ ned the objectives for the review, endorsed the plan for compiling the review, taken part in revising drafts and given advice to the Research Councils on how to prepare their reports. Science Adviser Annamaija Lehvo, Project Ofﬁ cer Anu Nuutinen and Science Adviser Timo Oksanen (team leader) from the Academy of Finland have compiled and written the general section of the report and edited the review. Information Specialist Maija Miettinen has provided expert assistance for the bibliometric analyses. In addition, Project Ofﬁ cer Siru Oksa and university trainee Sari Purhonen have assisted in the preparation of the general section of the review. The review has been translated from Finnish into English by David Kivinen. Tuulikki Toivonen has assisted in proofreading.