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BIO Magazine - Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews Δεκέμβριος 2015
Δεκέμβριος 2015 No38

BIO Science

Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews

Fasciolosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused
by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, of which Fasciola hepatica
and a larger species, Fasciola gigantica are the most common representatives. These
two food-borne trematodes usually infect domestic ruminants and cause important economic losses to
sheep, goats and cattle. In commercial herds, fasciolosis is of great economic significance worldwide
with losses estimated to exceed 2000 million dollars yearly, affecting more than 600 million animals, in
articles reported a decade ago. In addition, F. hepatica causes an estimated loss of $3 billion worldwide
per annum through livestock mortality, especially in sheep, and by decreased productivity via reduction
of milk and meat yields in cattle. The parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable because
the parasite’s eggs are not found during the prepatent period. Even when the worms have matured, the
diagnosis may still be difficult since eggs are only intermittently released. Repeated examinations of
stools are usually required to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of fasciolosis is
necessary for institution of prompt treatment before irreparable damage of the liver occurs. For these
reasons, serology is the most dependable method for diagnosing fasciolosis. Attempts have been made
to diagnose fasciolosis by detecting antibodies in the serum of sheep suspected of being infected with
the flukes. Advances in immunodiagnosis have focused on detection of Fasciola antigens in host body
fluid; these tests have an advantage over antibody detection because antigenemia implies recent and
active infection. Similarly, somatic and excretory secretory (E/S) antigens of Fasciola sp. or their
partially purified component are the commonest source of antigens used in protection trials and
serodiagnosis. Thus, the aim of the present review is to encourage more young researchers to initiate
work on this aspect of these economically cosmopolitan parasites.

http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1404906833_Tak et al.pdf

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